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Unread post13 Aug 2022, 17:47

Carbon_Dioxide_Laser_At_The_Laser_Effects_Test_Facility.jpg
A test target bursts into flame upon irradiation by a continuous-wave kilowatt-level carbon-dioxide laser
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Unread post13 Aug 2022, 17:52

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XLD - Experimental Laser Device Gas Dynamic Laser
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Unread post13 Aug 2022, 17:59

Kosberg laser rocket engine. Space station "Skif". Developed 1970-85. Gas dynamic laser. Working medium gaseous carbon monoxide + air + nitrogen + ethanol. Flow rate up to 100 kg/s. Tests were performed at NII TP.
Status: Developed 1970-85. Date: 1970-85. Unfuelled mass: 750 kg (1,650 lb). Height: 0.90 m (2.95 ft).

Beam power up to 600 kW. A second variant for dicianatethylen + nitrogen oxide was developed and tested at GIPK.

Engine: 750 kg (1,650 lb).

Source: http://astronautix.com/r/rd-0600.html
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Kosberg laser rocket engine
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Kosberg laser rocket engine - steel plate that was penetrated by the laser
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Unread post13 Aug 2022, 18:14

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Creating an Airborne Laser Lab
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Unread post13 Aug 2022, 18:17

I will be wrapping up directed energy soon. I've decided to change the order of upcoming topics a bit to accommodate the launch of Nasa's SLS moon rocket, which is rapidly nearing. More to come!
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Unread post14 Aug 2022, 23:33

Army looks to optimize lethality with high-energy lasers

By Dr. Kip R. Kendrick, SMDC/ARSTRATFebruary 8, 2018

Solid-state laser weapons offer war-fighters unique capabilities for the battlefield: precision, controllability, predictability, repeatability and flexibility. These laser systems will enable Soldiers to defeat multiple threats and affect materiel targets. Each engagement, wheth-er disabling an enemy's communications antenna or causing low-order detonation of an artillery round in flight, has an average cost of $30.

During the 1970s, the Army investigated carbon dioxide lasers. But there were issues with beam transmission through the atmos-phere and difficulty focusing the beam to a small spot at the target. Both factors reduced the lasers' effectiveness. Chemical lasers provided improved performance, but the hazardous materials required to generate the laser beam posed significant risk to warfight-ers.

A safer, more efficient alternative to chemical lasers, solid-state lasers generate their beam by converting electricity into tightly fo-cused laser light. There are two main types of solid-state high-energy lasers--greater than 1 kilowatt (kW)--in development today: thin-sheet and combined-fiber lasers. Of these two, combined-fiber lasers show the greatest promise for laser weapon systems on tac-tical and combat platforms because of their efficiency in converting electrical power to power on target. The Army, working with the High Energy Laser Joint Technology Office, initiated the Robust Electric Laser Initiative (RELI) effort in 2010. Four contracts were issued under RELI. The Army retained two of the contracts and later elected to scale a combined-fiber laser, designed by Lockheed Martin Corp., to a 50-kW class power level.

FIBER LASER BASICS

A fiber laser module begins with pump laser diodes to create light energy from electrical energy. The light from the pump laser diodes is then fed into a special optical fiber where the power from a seed laser diode is amplified. (See Figure 1.)

Today's fiber laser modules are limited to a little over a kilowatt. To reach higher power levels, the individual fiber laser modules need to be combined into one beam. The Lockheed Martin design uses a spectral-beam-combining architecture whereby laser beams of different frequencies are transmitted to a grating and combined into a single beam that is transmitted out of the laser at many tens of kilowatts.

To understand the spectral-beam--combining process, imagine shining a beam of white light through a prism: The prism bends each of the frequencies differently, scattering the original beam of light into multiple beams of various colors. The spectral beam combiner does the opposite: It combines the different frequencies of each fiber laser module into a single beam. (See Figure 2.) Another beam-combining architecture, coherent-beam combining, is also being developed and matured within the high-energy laser science and technology community.

GETTING SOLUTIONS TO SOLDIERS

The Army's Indirect Fire Protection Capability, Increment 2 -- Intercept (IFPC Inc 2-I) is an acquisition program designed to pro-vide a materiel solution to protect troops from cruise missiles, unmanned aerial systems (UAS), and rockets, artillery and mortars (RAM). IFPC Inc 2-I has a Block 2 milestone decision in FY24 to add the counter-RAM capability to the program.

The U.S. Army Space and Missile Defense Command/Army Forces Strategic Command (SMDC/ARSTRAT) is developing the 100-kW High Energy Laser Tactical Vehicle Demonstrator (HEL TVD) to address the counter-RAM requirements for IFPC Inc 2-I, Block 2. The HEL TVD will be integrated on the 10-ton variant of the Family of Medium Tactical Vehicles. In FY22, the HEL TVD will demonstrate target acquisition, tracking, aimpoint selection and maintenance, to defeat selected rocket, artillery and mortar threats.

Multiple subsystems are under development for integration into the weapon system. They include laser, beam control, electrical pow-er, thermal management and fire control. The goal of the FY22 demonstration is to confirm that a pre-prototype laser system can defeat RAM threats in an environment similar to the battlefield.

To reduce risk and provide information for HEL TVD development, the Army is using its High Energy Laser Mobile Test Truck (HELMTT). The HELMTT has demonstrated laser lethality against small-caliber mortars and Group 1-2 (hobby-size) UAS using a slightly modified 10-kW commercial off-the-shelf fiber laser.

In FY14, this system underwent several proof-of-concept demonstrations, defeating small-caliber mortars and UAS. In FY16, the HELMTT was part of the Maneuver Fires Integrated Experiment (MFIX) 2016 at Fort Sill, Oklahoma, exposing the warfighter to the military utility of laser weapons. HELMTT also was used in the Joint Improvised-Threat Defeat Organization's UAS Hard-Kill Challenge in FY17. In addition to these demonstrations, the HELMTT has collected laser propagation data in a variety of environ-ments, from coasts to high deserts. These data helped anchor models used to predict laser effectiveness on the battlefield.

The 10-kW laser subsystem has been removed from the HELMTT to modify the platform for integration of the Lockheed Martin RELI 50-kW-class laser. The Army will test the 50-kW HELMTT against a variety of RAM and UAS targets in late FY18. This demonstration is designed to verify laser lethality against RAM threats for the HEL TVD effort.

To ensure that laser weapons will be lethal against assigned threats, the Army is developing vulnerability modules for RAM and UAS. The Solid State Laser Testbed on the High Energy Laser Systems Test Facility at White Sands Missile Range, New Mexico, collects lethality data for these targets. Engineers there analyze each threat to determine the best aimpoints, as well as the total laser energy required to defeat the threats. The results are threat-specific vulnerability modules in a format common across the DOD laser com-munity. Laser lethality is one of a number of areas in HEL technology development where the services and agencies work together and share data.

FINDING THE RIGHT PLATFORM

The Army has been working with industry on a concept for a high-energy laser combat platform to be used in warfighter experimen-tation. Integration of existing laser subsystems began in January 2016; within four months the Mobile Expeditionary High Energy Laser (MEHEL) participated in MFIX-16 at Fort Sill.

A 2-kW fiber laser system, integrated on a Stryker platform, was the first high-energy fiber laser on a combat vehicle. The MEHEL defeated hobby-size quadcopters and some ground targets during MFIX-16. While defeating targets shows the potential for lasers on the battlefield, the main objective of the MEHEL is to support the development of tactics, techniques and procedures and concept of operations for future laser weapons. Late in FY16, the 2-kW laser was replaced with a 5-kW fiber laser. The Army designated this new 5-kW configuration MEHEL 2.0.

In preparation for MFIX-17, contractors trained Soldiers to operate the MEHEL 2.0. During the integrated experiment, these Sol-diers shot down small fixed- and rotary-wing UAS--a first for the Army. The Army is using lessons learned from MFIX-17 to make the MEHEL easier for Soldiers to operate. MEHEL 2.0 will also be part of MFIX-18.

MULTI-MISSION HIGH ENERGY LASER

The Multi-Mission High Energy Laser (MMHEL) is a technology maturation initiative starting in FY18. Technology maturation ini-tiatives facilitate the transition of key technologies to acquisition programs. The MMHEL will be a 50-kW laser system on a Stryker, designed to reduce risk and inform requirements for the Maneuver-Short Range Air Defense objective capability. The MMHEL will undergo an operational demonstration in FY21 to validate the laser system's counter-RAM, counter-UAS, counter-battery targeting and counter-materiel capabilities.

In addition to the HEL systems developed for data collections and demonstration, the Army is conducting basic and applied research in HELs. The basic research is focused on developing technologies for next generation high-energy lasers, tracking systems and con-trol algorithms. The Mobile Beam Control System Integration Laboratory will be built to investigate, mature and verify the perfor-mance of next generation beam control technologies. This trailer-mounted laboratory will provide the ability to collect performance data on beam control components in a variety of atmospheric environments.

CONCLUSION

The Army recognizes the many advantages that HEL weapon systems may provide the warfighter and is developing HEL technologies to satisfy requirements for programs of record. High-energy laser weapons simplify logistical support, requiring only diesel fuel, which is easily converted into electricity to power the laser. High-energy laser weapons also have the flexibility to defeat or affect many different types of threats, making the laser a potential air-defense solution for maneuvering forces and forward bases. These characteristics, coupled with a low cost per shot, will provide a battlefield advantage for U.S. forces.

For more information, contact the SMDC/ARSTRAT Public Affairs Office at 256-955-3887 or 719-554-1982, or at P.O. Box 1500, Huntsville, AL 35807; or go to http://www.youtube.com/armysmdc.

This article is published in the January -- March 2018 Army AL&T magazine.

Source: https://www.army.mil/article/200308/arm ... rgy_lasers
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Unread post14 Aug 2022, 23:41

27how-a-fiber-laser-works.png
How a fiber laser works

Image source: https://www.researchgate.net/profile/Ma ... -works.png

CLOSE_UP_V2_page.jpg
Side pump technique for transferring energy from a large area laser diode into a small (single mode) fiber core to allow light to be amplified

Image source: https://www.ipgphotonics.com/uploads/fi ... 2_page.jpg

fiberlaserpower-1.png

Image source: https://nextbigfuture.s3.amazonaws.com/ ... ower-1.png
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Unread post14 Aug 2022, 23:47

WASHINGTON -- The Army and Navy are increasingly incorporating laser weapons on a limited number of platforms and training exercises, according to Matthew Ketner, branch chief of the High Energy Laser Controls and Integration Directorate at the Naval Surface Warfare Center Dahlgren Division, Virginia.

Ketner spoke on these emerging laser technologies spoke last month during Lab Day at the Pentagon.

For its part, the Navy placed a 30-kilowatt laser onboard the USS Ponce, an amphibious transport dock ship, in 2014. The laser has been tested extensively and is authorized for defensive use.

The Army, meanwhile, is testing lasers to bring down unmanned aerial vehicles, according to Ketner.

In one training instance, a 10-kilowatt laser was placed on a Heavy Expanded Mobility Tactical Truck and tested during a Maneuver Fires Integrated Experiment at Fort Sill, Oklahoma, in April 2016. The laser successfully shot down a number of unmanned aerial vehicles, also known as UAVs.

In February and March of this year, the U.S. Army Space and Missile Command shot down a number of UAVs with a 5-kilowatt laser mounted on a Stryker during the Hard Kill Challenge at White Sands Missile Range, New Mexico.

The purpose of the Hard Kill Challenge "was to assess and look at technology... to do a 'hard-kill' shoot down of Group 1 [UAVs] and inform decision-makers on the current state of technology and how it can deal with single and multiple targets," said Adam Aberle, SMDC High Energy Laser Division technology development and demonstration lead.

The Army recognizes that high energy lasers have the potential to be a low-cost, effective complement to kinetic energy, he said. Lasers have the potential to be more effective at addressing rocket, artillery, mortar, or RAM threats, as well as unmanned aircraft systems and cruise missiles.

On the plus side, lasers are silent and invisible to the human eye and are thus hard to detect by the enemy, Ketner said.

Also, a laser has a near-perfectly straight trajectory, unlike the arc of an artillery round, which allows the laser to be much more accurate in finding its target.

Ketner also pointed out that a laser beam can also be scaled to the object in question, as he showcased a display of items that were hit by a laser. The objects included steel plating, aluminum, copper, carbon fiber and Kevlar. Other display items included a fried circuit board, a destroyed fixed-wing UAV and quadcopter, all victims of the laser beam.

The power of the beam can be adjusted for any material, he said. There's even a non-lethal adjustment for human targets.

So far, lasers have taken out cruise missiles, mortars, and other projectiles during testing, Ketner said.

One downside, he noted, is that lasers take a lot of energy and have difficulty penetrating haze, dust, smoke, and materials with anti-laser coatings. But overall, lasers remain a valuable tool in the military's arsenal. "Unlike a traditional gun," Ketner said, "lasers don't run out of bullets."

Source: https://www.army.mil/article/189794/las ... attlefield
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Unread post14 Aug 2022, 23:54

...
Laser expertise
Involved in the Dragonfire consortium are two of MBDA’s parent companies, in the form of BAE Systems and Leonardo-Finmeccanica GKN, along with Qinetiq, the defense technology development company spun out of DSTL, procurement specialist Arke, and aerospace firm Marshall ADG.

Both MBDA, largely through its German operation, and Qinetiq have extensive experience in the development of high-power lasers for potential weapons applications.

Back in 2012, MBDA Deutschland said it had built a 40 kilowatt laser “gun” based around the combined power of four 10 kilowatt fiber lasers provided by key partner IPG Photonics.

That demonstrator system was used to track and destroy artillery shell targets fired from a distance of 2 km, and at an altitude of 1 km, with MBDA saying at the time that it should be possible to build an 80 kilowatt system. A 100 kilowatt output has historically been quoted as the benchmark power required for effective military capability.
...

Source: https://optics.org/news/8/1/11
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MBDAlaserJan2017.jpg
MBDA's German operation has been working on laser weapons since 2008. Recent tests on the prototype system, shown here to be powered by high-power IPG fiber lasers, are said to be very positive. Photo: MBDA Systems.
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Unread post15 Aug 2022, 00:01

Liquid Lasers Challenge Fiber Lasers as the Basis of Future High-Energy Weapons Boeing and General Atomics are teaming to scale a novel killer-laser technology to 250 kilowatts.

JEFF HECHT 21 OCT 2020 3 MIN READ

Despite a lot of progress in recent years, practical laser weapons that can shoot down planes or missiles are still a ways off. But a new liquid laser may be bringing that day closer.

Much of the effort in recent years has focused on high-power fiber lasers. These lasers use specially doped coils of optical fibers to amplify a laser beam, and were originally developed for industrial cutting and welding. Initially, fiber laser were dark horses in the Pentagon's effort to develop electrically powered solid-state laser weapons that began two decades ago. However, by 2013 the Navy was testing a 30-kilowatt fiber laser on a ship. Since then, their ability to deliver high-energy beams of excellent optical quality has earned fiber lasers the leading role in the current field trials of laser weapons in the 50- to 100-kilowatt class. But now aerospace giant Boeing has teamed with General Atomics—a defense contractor also known for research in nuclear fusion—to challenge fiber lasers in achieving the 250-kilowatt threshold that some believe will be essential for future generations of laser weapons. Higher laser powers would be needed for nuclear missile defense.

The challenging technology was developed to control crucial issues with high energy solid-state lasers: size, weight and power, and the problem of dissipating waste heat that could disrupt laser operation and beam quality. General Atomics "had a couple of completely new ideas, including a liquid laser. They were considered completely crazy at the time, but DARPA funded us," said company vice president Mike Perry in a 2016 interview. Liquid lasers are similar to solid-state lasers, but they use a cooling liquid that flows through channels integrated into the solid-state laser material. A crucial trick was ensuring that the cooling liquid has a refractive index exactly the same as that of the solid laser material. A perfect match of the liquid and solid could avoid any refraction or reflection at the boundary between them. Avoiding reflection or refraction in the the cooling liquid also required making the fluid flow smoothly through the channels to prevent turbulence.

The system promised to be both compact and comparatively lightweight, just what DARPA wanted to fit a 150-kW laser into a fighter jet. The goal was a device that weighed only 750 kilograms, or just 5 kg/kW of output. The project that went through multiple development stages of testing that lasted a decade. In 2015, General Atomic delivered the HELLADS, the High Energy Liquid Laser Area Defense System, rated as 150-kW class, to the White Sands Missile Range in New Mexico for live fire tests against military targets. A press release issued at the time boasted the laser held "the world's record for the highest laser output power of any electrically powered laser." At the time, General Atomics described it as a modular laser weapon weighing in at four kilograms per kilowatt.

Development has continued since then. A spokesperson says General Atomics is now on the seventh generation of their "Distributed gain laser heads," modules which can be combined to generate over 250 kW of laser output from a very compact package. Improvements over the past two years have enhanced beam quality and the ability to emit high-energy beams both continuously or in a series of pulses, giving more flexibility in attacking targets.

Sustaining good beam quality at that power level is important. Mike Griffin, former undersecretary of defense for research and engineering, told Congress that current fiber laser technology could be scaled to 300 kilowatts to protect air force tankers. However, that may be pushing the upper limits of how many beams from separate fiber lasers emitting at closely spaced wavelengths can be combined coherently to generate a single high-energy laser beam of high quality.

The agreement calls for use General Atomics to supply integrated thermal management equipment and a high-density modular high-power lithium-ion battery system able to store three megajoules of energy as well as the laser. Boeing will supply a beam director and software for precision acquisition and pointing technology that Boeing developed and supplied for other experimental laser weapon testbeds, including the Air Force's megawatt-class Airborne Laser, the last big chemically-powered gas laser, scrapped in 2014. “Together, we’re leveraging six decades of directed energy experience and proven, deployed technologies," said Norm Tew, Boeing Missile and Weapon Systems vice president and general manager, and Huntsville site senior executive, in a statement.

Source: https://spectrum.ieee.org/fiber-lasers- ... er-weapons
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Distributed gain laser modules can combine to produce over 250 kilowatts of laser outputILLUSTRATION: GENERAL ATOMICS
artist-s-concept-of-laser-weapon-mounted-in-a-truck-a-real-laser-weapon-emits-an-invisible-infrared-beam.jpg
Artist's concept of laser weapon and beam director mounted on a truck; a real laser weapon emits an invisible infrared beam. PHOTO-ILLUSTRATION: GENERAL ATOMICS
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Unread post16 Aug 2022, 00:52

I'm going to round out "directed energy" with some articles/ info on "microwave and acoustic" directed energy weapons...
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Unread post16 Aug 2022, 00:57

...
The terrifying weapon uses "directed energy" to disable enemy radio and magnetic equipment on board enemy jets, drones and other aircraft.
...
Source: https://www.thesun.co.uk/news/1976248/r ... s-enemies/
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Russia claims its new weapon can decimate electronic equipment on board enemy aircraftCredit: RT
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The new "e-weapon" is unrivalled in the world, its manufacturers claimCredit: RT
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Unread post16 Aug 2022, 01:01

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CHAMP rockets send microwave beams at the speed of light to disable a nuclear-armed missile as it prepares to launch Credit: NBC News
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Unread post16 Aug 2022, 01:10

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