Aerospace Picture of the Day

New and old developments in aviation technology.
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Unread post09 Aug 2022, 20:01



Original video source: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=mHnGCb9SCfM

Just as an FYI...the MIRACL gas dynamic laser was capable of "fractional" power output, with its full power near around 2.2 megawatts; at tactically significant ranges, in fractional power, it could exceed 30 kW of power on target...
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Unread post10 Aug 2022, 14:18

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Damage sustained to the thick metal casing of a mortar bomb by the test laser

Image source: https://assets.publishing.service.gov.u ... ial-22.jpg
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Unread post10 Aug 2022, 14:19

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MBDA concept of a laser directed energy weapon for point defense.

Image source: https://www.ainonline.com/sites/ainonli ... oncept.jpg
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Unread post10 Aug 2022, 14:21

Deshorads_story.jpg
Artist’s rendition of a Stryker vehicle with mounted HEL system shoots down UAS

Image source: https://www.kbr.com/sites/default/files ... _story.jpg
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Unread post10 Aug 2022, 14:28

Zenith Star.
A giant 40 ton space laser from the SDI era. It had its own booster for launch (Barbarian), and deployed a megawatt-scale hydrogen fluoride Alpha laser, focused by the 4m diameter LAMP mirror.

https://larouchepub.com/eiw/public/1987/eirv14n50-19871218/eirv14n50-19871218_024-zenith_star_an_sdi_demonstration.pdf


Original source: https://twitter.com/toughsf/status/1343904603943784449
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Zenith Star
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Zenith Star
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Zenith Star
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Unread post10 Aug 2022, 19:47

8665312-6641089-This_This_1980s_artist_s_rendering_shows_an_interceptor_top_righ-a-47_1548705178485.jpg
Strategic Defense Initiative (SDI)

Image source: https://i.dailymail.co.uk/1s/2019/01/28 ... 178485.jpg
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Unread post10 Aug 2022, 19:50

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Airborne Laser (ALL) - laser fuel tanks and plumbing

Image source: https://i.dailymail.co.uk/1s/2019/01/28 ... 584237.jpg
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Unread post10 Aug 2022, 19:55

8665274-6641089-It_worked_On_September_6_1985_the_first_laser_lethality_test_was-a-37_1548702999022.jpg
It worked: On September 6, 1985 the first 'laser lethality test' was conducted for SDI on the High Energy Laser System Test Facility at the White Sands Missile Range in New Mexico; It took a high-intensity laser beam just a few seconds to destroy this Titan I booster rocket missile body even though the target wasn't loaded with any fuel. But the size of laser needed would have been heaver than any rocket could have taken into space at the time
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Down to business: At the heart of the 'Brilliant Pebbles' satellite was the core vehicle, which could maneuver in any direction to fire the laser
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Brilliant Pebbles


Images source: https://www.dailymail.co.uk/news/articl ... space.html
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Unread post11 Aug 2022, 14:11

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Unread post11 Aug 2022, 14:22

By Sharon Weinberger
5th August 2013

Killer satellites, radiation clouds and circling planes – Sharon Weinberger recalls some of the more bizarre ideas dreamed up over the decades.

Since the advent of intercontinental ballistic missiles in the 1950s, military scientists and engineers have been working hard to find a way to defeat them. Yet after decades of research and billions of dollars in investment, intercepting an incoming intercontinental ballistic missile, or “hitting a bullet with another bullet”, as it’s often described, still cannot be done reliably.

In a test last month, for instance, a US ground-based interceptor failed to take down a missile, marking another defeat for a system that has had, to date, a mixed record at best.

Ironically, that ground-based missile defense system, which uses a so-called “hit to kill” approach, where the amount of destructive energy released on impact disables or destroys the intercepted missile, is less ambitious and seemingly more practical than missile defense schemes of years past. Previous attempts often involved exotic directed-energy weapons and Death Star-like complexity. What follows is a partial list of the most outlandish ideas:

Excalibur (Cancelled 1992)
It was perhaps the grandest missile defense scheme of all time: A space-based nuclear-pumped X-ray laser that would blast large numbers of intercontinental ballistic missiles. The cornerstone of President Ronald Reagan’s Strategic Defense Initiative, Project Excalibur was, in theory, capable of protecting against a large-scale nuclear attack from the Soviet Union. After about ten ground-based tests, however, the project was cancelled.

Brilliant Pebbles (Cancelled 1993)
Another ambitious missile defense scheme proposed under the Reagan-era missile defense effort was the concept of launching missile-killing mini-satellites, each about the size and shape of an American football. Like the Excalibur laser, it was criticised for its technical complexity and cost. In theory, the mini-satellites would hone in on and collide with ballistic missiles as they travelled outside the Earth’s atmosphere. It was eventually cancelled when the Reagan-era projects were scaled back in favour of the ground-based missile defense scheme, which lives on to today in the form of ship- or land-launched interceptor missiles that can – when all goes to plan – knock down a ballistic missile in flight. If you are wondering how Brilliant Pebbles got its name, it came from the idea that these would be more intelligent and smaller than a type of guided missiles, then known as “smart rocks”.

Space Based Laser (Cancelled 2002)
Started by the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (Darpa) as the Alpha High Energy Laser, and then later transferred to the Strategic Defense Initiative Organization, the Space Based Laser was supposed to lead to a megawatt class laser that could shoot down missiles. Unlike Excalibur, however, the Space Based Laser was to be based on a chemical laser, and thus didn’t require setting off nuclear explosions in space. What ensued, however, was years of cost overruns and schedule delays, as the Pentagon and contractors struggled with the complexity of putting a chemical laser in space with a mirror that could reflect the beam and a tracking system that would allow it to hone in on a missile. Though work on the idea of a Space Based Laser continued for years after the Strategic Defense Initiative was cancelled, by 2002, the director of the Missile Defense Agency announced that it was being shelved. The laser never made it to space.

Airborne Laser (Cancelled 2009)
The notion failed as much because of the plans for how it would be used stretched the imagination of military planners. A fleet of Boeing 747 aircraft equipped with lasers would circle the planet waiting for a possible missile attack. Once such an attack was imminent, the aircraft would swoop in and intercept the missile during its vulnerable “boost phase”. Integrating the laser on the aircraft and demonstrating it could work as promised proved daunting: problems such as atmospheric turbulence, which affects beam propagation, proved difficult to solve. The laser also required dangerous chemicals to operate. After years of development and billions spent, then Defense Secretary Robert Gates cancelled the programme, saying its “proposed operational role is highly questionable.”

Eighth Card (Cancelled late 1960s)
Reportedly named for a reference to a card game trick that would give the United States the upper hand over the Soviet Union, this once top-secret laser programme was based on a gas-dynamic carbon dioxide laser that was supposed to reach 500 kilowatts. Numerous reviews eventually determined that, among other problems, scaling it up in power while maintaining the beam quality would be impractical.

Project Seesaw (Cancelled late 1960s)
In the 1960s, the U.S. government funded the top-secret project, which looked at the feasibility of particle beams for missile defense. Bounced between various agencies, including the Advanced Research Projects Agency (now known as Darpa), the project literally see-sawed between evaluations that deemed it theoretically feasible, or practically impossible. Eventually the latter evaluation won out, and no particle beam was developed.

Project Argus (Cancelled approximately 1959)
In 1958, the United States carried out a series of top-secret nuclear tests meant to test a missile defense theory forwarded by an eccentric physicist at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory in California. The concept was that nuclear weapons detonated in the upper atmosphere would create an artificial radiation belt capable of stopping incoming intercontinental ballistic missiles—a sort of atmospheric missile shield. Though the tests were hailed as successful the scheme, at the time dubbed “the greatest scientific experiment ever conducted”, was deemed impractical, if not impossible, for stopping nuclear attacks, and never went beyond testing.

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Source: https://www.bbc.com/future/article/2013 ... e-defences
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Unread post11 Aug 2022, 15:35

Bill Otto
Former Lead Systems Engineer, Space Based Laser (2000–2001)Author has 7.4K answers and 40.1M answer viewsUpdated 2y
The Excalibur Project was one of the many technologies proposed to provide a global ballistic missile shield.

Before Reagan announced the Strategic Defense Initiative, we were working on the then classified space based laser in three programs: the Alpha laser (built by TRW), the Talon Gold pointing and tracking technology (built by Lockheed Missiles and Space Company), and the Large Optics Demonstration Experiment (also built by Lockheed).

Ed Teller advocated and frankly lobbied for the Excalibur X-ray laser. It promised to respond to the number one problem with the then current space based laser: it could fire at very large numbers of missiles at once. The nightmare scenario in the cold war was if the USSR launched every missile they had at the United States at once. The space-based laser required several seconds pointed at each missile to destroy it. There was no way to get them all.

The Teller x-ray laser promised to solve that by having hundreds of lasers - one pointed at each missile - and then detonating a thermo-nuclear weapon to provide enough high-energy x-ray photons to pump all the lasers in one short pulse. Less than a microsecond later, of course, the nuclear detonation would vaporize the entire satellite.

The satellites were designed to be used only once. The USSR could only launch “all their ICBMs” once. It wasn’t like they could do the same trick the next day or the next week. It was a doomsday scenario.

Information leaked out that the x-ray laser was not really a laser at all. It had no resonator, so it was “amplified spontaneous emission” (ASE) which is not very coherent and cannot be focused at long ranges like the Alpha chemical laser could. When Reagan got wind of this, he terminated the Excalibur Project with some choice words for Ed Teller, and then proceeded to direct all funding toward the space based laser program. He made the program an unacknowledged classified program (code-named “Zenith Star”) and continued to publicly fund other technologies as cover for the secret ZS.

Since I worked on space-based laser, particle beams, and similar technologies for more than 20 years for DARPA, the Air Force, the Navy, and for other government agencies, I was well positioned to put together a history of laser weapons for missile defense. You can read some of it here: The History of Space Based Laser http://billotto.atwebpages.com/SBL.htm

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Project Excalibur
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Project Excalibur

Explosion in the upper left is a nuclear bomb going off. Three x-ray beams are coming out, destroying a MIRV bus (top), shrouded missile (right) and a single re-entry vehicle warhead (bottom). The satellite is completely vaporized by the detonation.

Should there be a high energy laser museum?
PS Some friends of mine are considering moving the Airborne Laser Lab (the 1970s KC-135) from Wright-Patterson AFB to the Atomic Museum in Albuquerque. There is a lot of restoration to do, and a building to erect to house the exhibit.

There are other relics of the history of laser weapons that could be added: the Talon Gold Brassboard, parts of the Alpha laser, parts of the Airborne Laser (the 1990s 747), the MIRACL laser, the SeaLITE beam director and similar items. Please comment below if this sounds interesting to you and if you would like to visit such an exhibit. Thanks. Doing all this would not be cheap and we are trying to assess the interest in such a project. It would probably be a go fund me kind of a project.

Source: https://www.quora.com/Did-President-Rea ... -used-once
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Unread post12 Aug 2022, 17:10

The US Military Used Lasers to Shoot Down a Drone in 1973

Lasers are the future of warfare. So it might come as a surprise to many Americans that the U.S. military first used a laser to shoot a drone out of the sky as early as 1973.

The laser program was part of Project Delta, an ARPA (now DARPA) initiative to weaponize lasers. In fact, there were 14 drone tests over the course of Project Delta, and in November of 1973, history was made. That’s when the first offensive laser weapons were used to shoot down remotely piloted vehicles at Kirtland Air Force Base in New Mexico.

Despite my appeals to the Air Force, I have been unable to get footage of the drones being shot down in 1973. But I know that the footage has to be out there somewhere, as the Air Force showed a film of the tests to Congress and private contractors in the mid-70s.

In the meantime we’ll have to settle for still photos of the laser demonstration. Below we see a black and white photo (seemingly pulled from the motion picture film nobody can now find) showing the unpiloted plane tearing apart.

From Maser to Laser

From the moment the laser was invented, the US military wanted to weaponize it. Between 1960 and 1980 the US government spent roughly $2.4 billion developing lasers. Nobel-winning physicist Charles Townes, one of the inventors of the laser, told the Air Force in the summer of 1961 that lasers would revolutionize the world. And he was right.

“Fundamentally, there is no limit to the power which can be obtained by the optical maser,” Townes bragged. Townes had strong ties to the military through his work at ARPA and developed the first maser, an acronym for “microwave amplification by stimulated emission of radiation.” The maser would prove to be the precursor to the modern practical laser.

But the lasers of the 1960s were, as you might expect, incredibly primitive. In fact, the standard measurement used by the Air Force in 1962, when formal research began in weaponizing lasers, was the Gillette. The term Gillette was coined by another inventor of the laser, Theodore Maiman, and it represented the number of razor blades that a laser could penetrate in 1/5000th of a second.

We have three inventors to thank for the laser, and all had ties to the military. Townes may have developed the math and outlined the physics for the first maser, but Gordon Gould (also at ARPA) and Ted Maiman at Hughes Labs were both working independently and inspired by each others’ work in the years leading to the construction of the first laser.

Maiman built the first practical laser in 1960, but Townes, who died earlier this year, was its biggest cheerleader in the military community. Townes, after all, helped found the JASONs, the secretive group of academics who worked on some of ARPA’s toughest problems — and would later become controversial in the academic community for inventing the modern electronic battlefield.

In a 1984 interview, Townes explains that money was just pouring out of ARPA in the early 1960s. He had more research and development money than he knew what to do with. Almost everybody was generally skeptical that lasers could prove to be effective weapons, but they had enough money sloshing around that they could just say, why not?

The Laser Arms Race

The “why not?” mentality would quickly turn into an arms race. By late 1962, ARPA already had two major programs, Project Seaside and Project Defender, highly classified missions to figure out how to shoot down Soviet missiles using lasers.

The Cuban Missile Crisis of October 1963 would prove to be a major turning point. The US military wanted to leapfrog the Soviets in weapons technology, and they thought lasers might be the answer. As Robert W. Duffner notes in his book Airborne Laser: Bullets of Light, President Kennedy moved Project Defender into the “highest national priority category.”

“Although PROJECT DEFENDER would not solve the Cuban missile crisis,” Duffner writes, “Kennedy’s decision placed increased emphasis on laser research and made funds more readily available in hopes of developing lasers as ABM weapons to be better prepared for future confrontations.”

Lasers, like all technologies, take time to mature. Even though it took roughly a decade from the invention of the laser to its use as an offensive weapon, that’s still an incredibly fast achievement.

The Eighth Card

By 1968 ARPA began work on a project called Eighth Card, which would evolve into Project Delta by the 1970s. The name of the program was inspired by seven-card poker. The “eighth card” in this Cold War battle was laser weapons, which would be used against the Soviet Union in the event of nuclear war.

As Hans Mark recalls in his 2002 article, “The Airborne Laser from Theory to Reality: An Insider’s Account,” the ultimate goal was to equip US Air Force planes with laser weapons capabilities:

Edward Teller was particularly intrigued by the idea of what he called the ‘aerial battleship’ — a large airplane equipped with one or more high-intensity lasers. A futuristic aircraft of this type could escort bombers to defend them from enemy attacks.

But for now, they’d have to settle for a laser mounted on the ground — just the kind they’d labored over in New Mexico.

Eighth Card made history at Kirtland Air Force Base on November 13th and 14th, 1973. Targeting a Northrop MQM-33B drone, the Air Force successfully blasted the thing out of the sky. As Duffner explains in Airborne Laser:

Shortly after noon on 13 November, the beam hit the aluminum fuselage aft of the fuel tank. The beam remained on the drone long enough to burn through the skin, causing the drone to lose control and make one last diving left turn before crashing into the desert floor. Inspection of the debris revealed the beam had burned and shorted out the internal electrical control cabling, forcing the drone into a rolling pitch-down maneuver. Although the experiment disabled the drone, it suffered only minor damage.

A parachute was used on the drone so that once it went hurtling toward the Earth, researchers could figure out what the damage had been done by the laser versus impact with the ground.

One of the weirdest parts of the story, however, takes place just before the first successful tests. During a test of the laser system’s tracker capabilities, the laser missed the drone entirely. Instead, it hit a nearby water tower and produced “a dramatic flash of light.” According to Duffner, “the beam left scorch marks on the tower’s metal supports.”

It should probably be noted here that not only have I submitted freedom of information requests with the Air Force for footage of the tests, I’ve also asked for still photos of the damage done to the water tower, which must have been documented and now probably sit in some deep, dark archive. Again, my requests have turned up nothing.

By 1976, other branches of the military were getting in on the act. Laser weapons were no longer confined to experiments done through ARPA, the Air Force, and its private contractors. According to Duffner, the Army and Navy eventually saw great potential for laser weapons in the late 1970s:

It wasn’t until the summer of 1976 that the Army used an AVCO electric discharge laser to disable slow-moving (300 miles per hour) 15-foot-long Beech Aircraft winged (MQM-16A) and helicopter drones at Redstone Arsenal, Alabama. (The laser was housed in a mobile test unite mounted on a modified Marine Corps LVTP-7 tracked amphibious assault vehicle.)

The Navy was late to the laser-weapons game but had caught up by 1978, using its own laser to shoot down an anti-tank missile:

The Navy did not succeed in a similar laser demonstration until March 1978, when it fired a 400-kilowatt deuterium flouride high-energy chemical laser built by TRW and a precision tracker built by Hughes to shoot down an Army TOW (tube-launched, optically tracked, wire-guided) antitank missile (6-inch diameter) launched near San Juan Capistrano, California.

Money for laser testing even established the foundation for Ronald Reagan’s Strategic Defense Initiative in the 1980s. As the Washington Post reported in August of 1979:

As was the case with atomic weapons and ICBMs, the Soviets today are considered years behind the United States in laser research. But Dr. William J. Perry, undersecretary of defense for research and engineering, told a Senate hearing this year that the present Soviet laser program “may be three to five times the scope of our own.”

The U.S. operation, at $200 million a year, is “the single largest science and technology program we are pursuing,” Perry said.

The laser had been used as a way to guide missiles as early as the Vietnam War, but it wouldn’t see the battlefield in an offensive capacity (as far as we know) until the wars in Afghanistan and the second Iraq War.

Our Laser Weapon Future

When a Navy laser blasted a drone out of the sky in 2013, it was treated as an incredible new development. But it was actually the culmination of decades of research.

Today laser weapons are part of a growing field known as directed energy weapons.

The US military acknowledges that they’ve used laser weapons in both Iraq and Afghanistan. The ZEUS laser system is mounted on the back of a humvee and used to explode IEDs and other roadside bombs from a distance of up to 300 meters. But there’s growing concern in the military establishment that as laser weapons tech becomes more advanced and cheaper, they could one day be used against Americans.

The field continues to expand, and lasers even have their own research and development summits hosted by companies like Booz Allen Hamilton. The future is here. But few people today remember that the groundwork for laser weapons was laid over almost half a century ago.

Sources: Airborne Laser: Bullets of Light by Robert W. Duffner (1994); Battle for Space by Curtis Pebbles (1983); The Airborne Laser from Theory to Reality: An Insider’s Account by Hans Mark (2002); The Evolving Technoculture of America: Understanding the Impact of the Laser on the Relationship Between Technology and Culture, 1960-2000 by Weston Welge (2001)

Source: https://paleofuture.com/blog/2015/11/17 ... ne-in-1973


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Eighth Card progress report from 1969 (DTIC)

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Charles Townes shows off his maser, a precursor to laser tech, during a news conference in 1955 (Associated Press)

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Still image of a drone busting apart after being shot by a laser on November 13, 1973

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Unread post12 Aug 2022, 19:33

The-AVCO-Thumper-laser-a-130-kW-average-power-gas-dynamic-laser-from-ref-35.png
The AVCO 'Thumper' laser—a 130-kW average power gas dynamic laser (from ref. 35).

Image source: https://www.researchgate.net/profile/An ... ref-35.png
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Unread post12 Aug 2022, 20:21

The US Army is integrating a 20 kW-class laser weapon system into its new Infantry Squad Vehicle (ISV) to help soldiers down smaller unmanned aerial systems (UASs), according to the director of the service's Rapid Capabilities and Critical Technologies Office Lieutenant General Neil Thurgood. The three-star general spoke at the Space and Missile Defense symposium about a host of programmes under his purview including directed energy initiatives. At the event, he announced that senior service leaders recently approved the development of an Army Multi-Purpose High Energy Laser (AMP-HEL) prototype that they want completed by the end of September 2023.
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Unread post13 Aug 2022, 17:44

EiWJ9tgUcAE3Mw2.jpg
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DRDO gas dynamic 100KW laser (ADITYA)
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